PeroxyMAX™: A New Generation of Oxidation and Disinfection Technology
As operators look to increase reuse of produced water, meeting treatment targets is getting more critical. Blend ratios are trending toward higher produced-water fractions, with some operators using 100-percent produced water for fracturing. The market can no longer tolerate off-spec water. Water-treatment vendors can no longer count on blending with fresh to meet their treatment targets. With the high variability of produced water, vendors must lean on real-time automation and cloud-data solutions to achieve target performance while not overtreating and overspending.
CHEMISTRY FOR VARIABILITY
Next-generation solutions will employ automated, nimble chemical treatment managed by an online process-control system. In the past, vendors focused on developing expensive, sophisticated equipment in hopes of taming the beast of produced water. Such fixed-process systems are no match for the high variability of produced water and the varying needs of different customers. Mechanical systems with fixed-process dynamics have no tunability and so, in any given situation, are either overtreating or undertreating.
Automated, nimble chemical systems are capable of adjusting treatment to the needs of both the input and output. For reuse, the input water varies greatly in the level of impairment and contaminant load over the life of the well and from well to well. The output-water requirements are specified by the operator and can vary significantly from customer to customer. With all this variability, the best solution is one that is highly nimble utilizing an automated chemical package.
Water treatment shouldn’t feel like a compromise between treatment performance and safety.
DON'T COMPROMISE ON SAFETY
Water treatment shouldn’t feel like a compromise between treatment performance and safety. The contaminants of concern for completion water include:
• bacteria (equipment damage, hydrogen-sulfide mitigation, asset value)
• hydrogen sulfide (safety and corrosion)
• iron and other metals (frac-chem compatibility, plugging)
• suspended solids (frac-chem compatibility, plugging)
Bacteria control is a primary concern for completion water. The market is roughly split between the traditional treatment options—half using oxidizers for a low-cost, fast, bacteria kill while the other half uses preservative chemistry as their only tool. Glutaraldehyde (glut), quaternary ammonium compounds (quat) and glut-quat blends make up some of the most familiar preservative chemistries on the market. Glut and glut-quat blends are very good at preventing regrowth of bacteria populations, but are slow and expensive in achieving the initial “bug kill.”
Traditional oxidizers aren’t perfect either. Chlorine dioxide, the primary oxidant chemistry used for oil-field water treatment, is a highly toxic and flammable gas that is corrosive in solution. Chlorine dioxide has been responsible for many accidents and injuries in the field. Chlorine dioxide is rapidly released from water (vapor pressure greater than 1 atm) and is listed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as immediately dangerous to life or health at 13.8 mg/m3, which is easily achieved in the head space of tanks and enclosed areas.
Chlorine-dioxide gas can accumulate in air pockets in transfer lines, which can cause line rupture and damage to equipment. It is explosive when it accumulates in air to more than 10 percent by volume.
A NEW ALTERNATIVE—PeroxyMAXTM FOR UPSTREAM WATER
Clean Chemistry, an oil-field service company providing upstream watermanagement solutions, developed a new generation of oxidation and disinfection technology. PeroxyMAX™ is a proprietary solution of sodiumperacetate generated on demand and designed to deliver large concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) singlet oxygen, superoxide and hydroperoxyl radicals. The selectivity of this unique oxidant blend in a safe liquid formulation gives customers the horsepower they need without the hazards.
PeroxyMAX™ is a safe, non-volatile liquid, yet provides the same fastacting microbial control as chlorine dioxide. PeroxyMAX™ also oxidizes hydrogen sulfide, pulls iron out of solution and initiates the floc process for solids separation. PeroxyMAX™ addresses all primary contaminants of concern for completion water:
• hydrogen sulfide
• iron and other metal
• suspended solids
It is the only chemistry capable of fast-acting, low-cost treatment on any water source with full automation and quality control. Inherently safer chemistry, process and automation means cost reductions while delivering better performance and efficiency.
PeroyMAX™ has successfully treated more than 100 million barrels of water for reuse and completions. Its efficiency and performance in highly impaired water has made it a preferred oxidant for reuse in the upstream oil and gas sector for customers who value data-driven solutions, have experienced unacceptable safety and corrosion incidents using chlorine oxidants or want to avoid excessive costs of conventional biocides and underperforming products.
REDUCED LABOR TO MEET ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES
Excessive treatment expenses aren’t just due to inefficient chemical use or overengineered equipment. Labor can be a significant expense on recycle operations—particularly when managing hazardous chemicals, hydrogen-sulfide problems or inefficient solids handling.
Seeking to save money, the industry is asking for labor reductions on these reuse projects without compromising treatment performance or safety. This requires safe, nonvolatile chemicals coupled with real-time and remote monitoring with automated feedback loops. Solids management can be streamlined, sending slurries to disposal wells or dewatering boxes.
Clean Chemistry’s approach to reduce labor employs an ecosystem of online sensors, automated doseadjusting algorithms, remote monitoringing from our command center and site visits fro our field supervisors.
Excessive treatment expenses aren’t just due to inefficient chemical use or overengineered equipment. Labor can be a significant expense on recycle operations— particularly when managing hazardous chemicals and hydrogen-sulfide problems.
REDUCED LABOR TO MEET ECONOMIC OBJECTIVIST
Like chlorine chemistries, PeroxyMAX™ generates a strong oxidation reduction potential (ORP) response, which is directly correlated with effective bug kill. Rather than spot-checking with ATP tests (a measure of cellular respiration in solution) or shooting bug bottles, water quality is tracked and instantly adjusted to dose exactly what is needed, when it is needed. This kind of accuracy eliminates over- or underdosing issues.
PeroxyMAX™ systems are networked for remote monitoring and control. They also collect process data for full-time quality assurance and reporting.
The rapidly evolving digital era of data-driven IoT (Internet of Things) operations, automation and asset management in the oil field has enabled new levels of efficiency and increased productivity. Cost, performance and safety are mantras of oil-field operations. It is only with forward-thinking innovations that these needs can be met in all aspects of oil-field operations, including water sourcing, treatment and disposal.
Cost, performance and safety are mantras of oil-field operations. It is only with forwardthinking innovations that these needs can be met in all aspects of oil-field operations, including water sourcing, treatment and disposal.
Clean Chemistry has taken this technology and elevated it, taking advantage of the already automated process PeroxyMAX™ enables and powering it with the digital cloud. Data is collected minute to minute on equipment performance, product quality control and water treatment. This data is then leveraged to create customer-level access to live and historic data through a user-friendly dashboard. (See Figure 2.)
Historic data can also be provided for real-time treatment quality assurance, reporting, monitoring of trends and identifying causes of upsets during water-treatment operations.
The inherent safety, automation, process monitoring and data gathering combined in a smart treatment platform enabled by PeroxyMAX™ provides significant improvements in operational safety and reliability while reducing or virtually eliminating onsite labor costs for watertreatment operations.
Authored by Damon Waters